Title 9, Chapter 11, Section 9
(a) Capacity. It is not necessary to aver the capacity of a party to
bring or defend an action, the authority of a party to bring or
defend an action in a representative capacity, or the legal
existence of an organized association of persons that is made a
party. When a party desires to raise an issue as to the legal
existence of any party, the capacity of any party to bring or defend
an action, or the authority of a party to bring or defend an action
in a representative capacity, he shall do so by specific negative
averment, which shall include such supporting particulars as are
peculiarly within the pleader's knowledge.
(b) Fraud, mistake, condition of the mind. In all averments of fraud
or mistake, the circumstance constituting fraud or mistake shall be
stated with particularity. Malice, intent, knowledge, and other
condition of mind of a person may be averred generally.
(c) Conditions precedent. In pleading the performance or occurrence
of conditions precedent, it is sufficient to aver generally that all
conditions precedent have been performed or have occurred. A denial
of performance or occurrence shall be made specifically and with
(d) Official document or act. In pleading an official document or
official act it is sufficient to aver that the document was issued
or the act done in compliance with law.
(e) Judgment. In pleading a judgment or decision of a domestic or
foreign court, of a judicial or quasi-judicial tribunal, or of a
board or officer, it is sufficient to aver the judgment or decision
without setting forth matter showing jurisdiction to render it.
(f) Time and place. For the purpose of testing the sufficiency of a
pleading, averments of time and place are material and shall be
considered like all other averments of material matter.
(g) Special damage. When items of special damage are claimed, they
shall be specifically stated.