Dock H. Davis, the executor of the estate of P. H. Montgomery, Jr., filed a petition in probate court seeking compensation under OCGA 53-6-143
for distributing certain property in kind. 1
The probate court entered an order denying the petition. Davis then appealed this decision to the superior court. 2
Following a jury trial, the jury found that Davis was entitled to a commission equal to two and one-half percent of the value of the property delivered in kind, although it was not asked to make any findings as to the value of such property. The superior court entered judgment on the jury verdict, holding that "[t]he commission allowed to . . . Davis as compensation shall be 2 1/2% of the value of the property delivered in kind." This judgment also did not set forth the value of such property. George Russom Clark, a residuary legatee under Montgomery's will, filed a notice of appeal from the superior court's judgment. 3
Because the superior court's order does not constitute a final judgment pursuant to OCGA 5-6-34
(a) (1), we dismiss the appeal.
Generally, when a superior court rules on an appeal from a lower court, the superior court's decision may be appealed to this court only through the discretionary appeals procedures. 4
This rule does not, however, apply to a superior court decision in an appeal from probate court. In such case, the appealability of the superior court's ruling is governed by OCGA 5-6-34
If the ruling constitutes a "final judgment," it is directly appealable under OCGA 5-6-34
(a). If the ruling is not a final judgment, the appellant must follow the interlocutory appeals procedures set forth in OCGA 5-6-34
When an appeal is taken to the superior court from a decision of the probate court, the appeal is de novo, and the entire case is transferred to the superior court. 7
The duty of the superior court is not to determine whether the probate court erred but to "try the issue anew and pass original judgments on the questions involved as if there had been no previous trial." 8
Thus, when a de novo appeal is made to the superior court, it is error for that court to remand the case back to the probate court for further proceedings. 9
In this case, Davis appealed the probate court's denial of his petition for additional compensation under OCGA 53-6-143
. Therefore, his appeal to superior court brought up the entire issue of his entitlement to additional compensation, including the amount of such compensation.
"It is the duty of this court on its own motion to inquire into its jurisdiction." 11
Regardless of the propriety of the superior court's severing the issue of Davis' entitlement to a commission from the issue of the value of the property transferred, the fact remains that the case has not been fully adjudicated in the superior court. Accordingly, the superior court's decision was not a "final judgment" pursuant to OCGA 5-6-34
(a) (1), and Clark was required to follow the interlocutory appeals procedures. Because he did not do so, we do not have jurisdiction to decide this appeal.
Dock H. Davis, pro se.